Basic parts of computer and their role in functioning


Learning computer hardware is essential to improving your computer knowledge. With the knowledge of computer hardware, you will be able to understand the science and engineering behind computers and modern technologies.

Having a basic knowledge of computer hardware is essential for those students doing 3-month or 6-month basic computer courses in their local computer institutes and for those trying to learn computer skills online at home.

As I told you many times having basic computer knowledge including software and hardware is essential before you join any bachelor computer science degree or software engineering course. So that you will strong base to build upon your engineering and computer science skills and knowledge.

Also in degree courses, many basic things are missed such as how to replace the CPU or power supply.

So, in this post, we are trying to share with you some of the essential things to learn about computer hardware components. We hope this will help you to improve our computer hardware knowledge.

So, let us get started!

Part 1: What is Computer?

Part 2: What is Software?

What is Computer Hardware?

Computer Hardware is the 2nd part of the computer. The 1st part is software. Computer Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer that we can see and touch.

Physical components like CPU, RAM, hard drive, SSD, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, and any other portable device work together enable to the operating system to boot or start and enable the computer to function properly.

For example, computer hardware is like our body parts and the soul is an operating system and application software like our skillset or education.

Each physical component of the computer plays a specific role in processing data and delivering results such as:

  • CPU (Central Processing Unit): It is the “brain” of the computer and performs most of the data processing.
  • RAM (Random Access Memory): It temporarily or volatile memory holds data and instructions that the CPU is currently using, allowing quick access for faster processing.
  • Storage Devices: They store data and applications permanently (hard drives or SSDs) or temporarily (e.g., USB drives).
  • Input Devices: Allow you to enter data into the computer (e.g., keyboard, mouse, light pen, microphone).
  • Output Devices: Display or present processed data to the user (e.g., monitor, printer, speakers).

Now let us understand the basic parts of  computer hardware components in more detail:

1. The Central Processing Unit (CPU): केंद्रीय कार्यकारिणी इकाई

The Central Processing Unit (CPU): केंद्रीय कार्यकारिणी इकाई

The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, is the heart and brain of your computer. It executes instructions from software and performs complex calculations and data manipulation. The CPU is located on the motherboard, typically situated beneath the fan.

The speed and power of the CPU significantly impact your computer’s performance. CPUs are measured by their clock speed (in gigahertz) and the number of cores they have, with higher values indicating better performance.

2. Random Access Memory

Random Access Memory

Think of RAM as your computer’s short-term memory. When you run programs or open files, the data is temporarily stored in RAM for quick access by the CPU.

RAM allows your computer to multitask efficiently and is crucial for smooth performance. More RAM enables your computer to handle larger and more complex tasks simultaneously.

3. Storage Devices

Storage Devices

Storage devices are where your data, applications, and operating system are permanently stored. There are two primary types of storage devices: Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) and Solid-State Drives (SSDs).

HDDs use magnetic storage and offer more storage capacity, while SSDs use flash memory for faster read/write speeds. Having both types of storage can provide a balance of speed and storage space.

4. Motherboard: (Main Board, Mobo)

Motherboard: (Main Board, Mobo)

The motherboard is the central circuit board that connects and facilitates communication between all hardware components. It holds the CPU, RAM, storage drives, and other peripherals like the GPU, network card, ICs, Capacitor, Resistance, and USB ports. Choosing a motherboard compatible with your CPU and other components is crucial for a stable and functional system.

5. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) or Graphic Card

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) or Graphic Card

The Graphics Processing Unit, or GPU, is responsible for rendering images and videos. While CPUs can handle basic graphics, GPUs excel at complex graphical tasks, making them essential for gaming, video editing, and other graphical applications. Some CPUs or Motherboard’s come with integrated GPUs, but dedicated GPUs offer superior performance for graphics-intensive tasks.

6. Power Supply Unit (PSU) or SMPS

Power Supply Unit (PSU) or SMPS

The Power Supply Unit (PSU) or SMPS (switched mode power supply) provides electrical power to all the components in your computer such as the motherboard, hardware, DVD-RW, USB, and everything. Choosing a reliable and appropriately rated PSU ensures that your computer receives the right amount of power and prevents potential damage to the hardware.

7. Input Devices

Input Devices

Input devices allow you to interact with your computer. The keyboard lets you type, the mouse allows you to point and click, and a microphone enables you to input audio. These devices are your primary means of communication with the digital world.

8. Output Devices

Output Devices

Output devices display or present the results generated by your computer. The most common output device is the monitor, which shows text, images, and videos. Printers, on the other hand, produce hard copies of documents and images.

Familiarizing yourself with these essential computer hardware components will help you appreciate the complexity and functionality of computers.

If you have a computer open its cabinet and watch each part and understand how these relate to each other. Here are some tips on how to learn computer hardware.

You can also watch the video below (language: Hindi) in which you see how to Turn On and Turn Off the Computer and connect the cable and power on the computer.

If you are looking for a complete course course on computer hardware and assembly then please take a look at below online courses that you can consider buying or joining.

Computer Basics, Computer Fundamentals Hardware & Networking

How to Build a PC [2022] – Beginners to Intermediate

Learn more


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